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Nowadays, the common opinion is that The aphorisms about the Supreme Divine Resonance (Spandakarika) are the work of the great sage and liberated master Vasugupta.

According to Kshemaraja, the 51 aphorisms from this fundamental text present the essence of the teachings from Shiva Sutra, a text that Kshemaraja considers a summary of the non-dual Shivaism.

Kshemaraja asserts that the teachings from Spandakarika are the fundamental secret text itself of shivagama, that is, of the doctrine of this spiritual system.

The great sage says that Shiva Himself has offered Vasugupta access to Shiva Sutra so that the supreme tradition of the non-dual Shivaism would not completely vanish in a world of dualist conception.

Later on, Somananda in his main work, Shivadrishti characterizes the school of the non-dual Shivaism as a secret doctrine which could easily be lost in the dark age of Kali (Kali Yuga).

Essentially, The aphorisms about the Supreme Divine Resonance present the notion of spanda as a supreme expression of the dynamic character of Gods (Paramashivas) Absolute Consciousness and also its multiple manifestations at any level of existence and individual experience.

There were many studies of the fundamental text Spandakarika but the best ones are the two written by Kshemaraja, Kallatas commentary (vritti), Bhagavatotpalas Spandapradipika and Rajanaka Ramas ample commentary (vivritti).

Unfortunately, the commentaries of the last two have not been translated in a European language. Experts say that the deepest comments and explanations of Spandakarika are included in Kshemarajas two commentaries.

Indeed, it seems that Kshemarajas first written work was a commentary to the first aphorism from Spandarika which he named The essence of the Supreme Divine Vibration (Resonance) (Spandasamdoha).

Then, asked by his son, Kshemaraja wrote a commentary on the whole work, attentively analyzing all the 51 aphorisms. He named this second commentary Definitions on the Supreme Divine Resonance (Spandanirnaya).

Jaideva Singh wonderfully translated it into English (adding the necessary explanations and notes) being directly and expertly guided by the last representative of the non-dual Shivait school from Kashmir, Sri Lakshman Joo Brahmacharin.

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Kshemaraja mentions a fundamental element found in the spirituality of the non-dual Shivaism. It refers to the dynamic character (spanda) of the Absolute consciousness which is completely free and unconditioned, able to take any form within the spatial-temporal Creation when it (the Absolute Consciousness) faces the objective aspect of Manifestation.

The movement (or, even better, the kind of movement as mentioned in the previous article) of Gods Absolute consciousness is in fact a purely creative movement that transits from the un-manifested state of the Supreme Being (God) to the objective state of Becoming or Transformation of the Supreme Being.

Considering this, we can say that the Supreme Being (the Divine, Shiva) encounters a permanent Becoming as He constantly embraces a finite expression in time and space.

Thus, the pure and endless bright essence of the Supreme Being (God the Father) appears as a manifestation of His Becoming in the exterior, thus, being a permanent, renovating source of His own objective appearance.

Making a simple comparison (of course, with its inevitable limits to the situation) it is as if an actor goes on stage from the backstage (where he doesnt manifest yet), performs all the roles of the play, watches and admires himself and, in the mean time, devises new circumstances, new characters (and it is also him that supports them, always changing the background, the costumes, etc.).

He is also the conductor, the band and the audience without changing his essential nature. Considering this, we can say that the Supreme Being and His Becoming or Objectivity represent His inner (hidden, occult) and exterior(expressed through names and forms) facets of the Universal Divine consciousness which spontaneously manifests Its Infinite Power.

We can easily guess that the inner facet or the veiled aspect of the Supreme Divine consciousness is represented by the pure conscious subject (the Supreme I) that lacks any objective content and is far beyond the limits of time and space.

In fact, the 16th sutra from Spandakarika says: That indescribable inner state represents the power of Gods omniscience and attributes. It has no end and continues to exist in eternity as nothing else can really be perceived (except for it).

On the other side, the exterior aspect or facet of the Supreme Divine consciousness represents the diversity and continuous transformation of the manifested world, that is, of objectivity.

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But here we must say that while the exterior aspect of the Divine consciousness appears as a reality that is different from its inner aspect, the veiled (inner) aspect contains the totality of the exterior.

Thus, the exterior aspect appears in the interior of the interior without changing, dividing or transforming the essential nature of Gods Absolute Consciousness.

This paradoxical condition was brilliantly and clearly expressed by the great sage and liberated master Abhinavagupta in his fundamental work Tantraloka:

When it manifests itself, the Supreme consciousness appears both as subject (inner) and as object (outer). Thus, it sublimely shines (in itself) and gives the impression that it illuminates another reality and not the unique one that it represents.

These comments emphasize the absolute creative freedom (svatantrya) of the Divine Consciousness that thus somehow becomes similar to the power of illusion (maya).

When the infinite divine power manifests and creates, the objectivity is acknowledged during an illuminating flash of the consciousness as the spontaneous expression of manifestation of the Divine Absolute; it is ineffably expressed as a pure infinite vibration (spanda) of its unconditional freedom.

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